• Angiography (An angiogram is an invasive diagnostic procedure that provides detailed images of the heart and peripheral vessels.  For more information, click here)

    Angioplasty (Angioplasty is a balloon procedure which restores normal blood flow through a narrowed artery. For more information, click here)

    Aortic Valvuloplasty (Aortic Valvuloplasty is an invasive catheter-based procedure that involves balloon dilation of the aortic valve.  The procedure is used primarily in the treatment of severe aortic stenosis and will usually provide temporary relief of symptoms.  It is not a permanent treatment for aortic stenosis, and most patients will undergo this procedure to improve their chances of surviving an acute critical illness or to bridge them towards percutaneous aortic valve replacement at a later date)

    Cardioversion (Electrical cardioversion is a procedure where an electrical shock is delivered to the heart to convert an abnormal heart rhythm back to a normal rhythm.  For more information, click here)

    Echocardiography (Echocardiography is an ultrasound study which evaluates the structure and function of the heart and associated vessels.  For more information, click here)

    Electrocardiogram (EKG) (An electrocardiogram, also called an ECG or EKG, is a test which measures the heartís electrical rhythm.  For more information, click here)

    Stent (Vessels treated with angioplasty run the risk of becoming re-occluded if the vessel collapses. In order to reduce this risk, most angioplasty procedures are accompanied by the insertion of a stent, a small cylindrical mesh tube that helps keep the diseased artery open.  For more information, click here)

    Stress Treadmill Test (A stress treadmill test involves walking on a treadmill and monitoring how the heart responds to exercise.  It is most often used to detect the presence of significant coronary artery disease. If one is unable perform vigorous walking on the treadmill, often times medications will be administered in order to simulate physical exertion and adequately stress the heart.  In addition to monitoring with EKG, supplemental stress imaging will often be concurrently performed, such as echocardiography or nuclear imaging. For more information, click here)

    Tilt-table Testing (Tilt table testing is a study used to aid in identifying the cause of fainting.  The test entails placing one supine on a flat table and subsequently tilting the table in small increments to a completely vertical position. Blood pressure, symptoms, and heart rhythm are monitored during the entirety of the study.)

    Transesophageal Echocardiography (TEE) (Transesophageal Echocardiography (TEE) is a type of study where a small ultrasound probe is passed down the esophagus into position behind the heart. This produces extremely detailed, high quality images that can permit the evaluation of the various structures of the heart and its associated vessels.  For more information, click here)